Carbon Film Types of Fossils

According to the Bible, the first man was Adam. But many scientists claim that certain unearthed bones are from humans who lived prior to Adam and Eve. Our answer is based upon the premise of having proven that the Creator God exists and that the Bible is His inerrant revelation to mankind. No other physical creature was made in the very image and likeness of God. The rest of chapter 2 through chapter 5 gives a summary of how God made the first woman, and how the human race developed after Adam and Eve. He created them male and female, and blessed them and called them Mankind in the day they were created. Adam and Eve were created approximately 6, years ago.

The Mysterious Aboriginal Rock Art of the Wandjinas

So, how do we know how old a fossil is? There are two main methods determining a fossils age, relative dating and absolute dating. Relative dating is used to determine a fossils approximate age by comparing it to similar rocks and fossils of known ages. Absolute dating is used to determine a precise age of a fossil by using radiometric dating to measure the decay of isotopes, either within the fossil or more often the rocks associated with it. Relative Dating The majority of the time fossils are dated using relative dating techniques.

Using relative dating the fossil is compared to something for which an age is already known.

STRATIGRAPHY CONCEPT Stratigraphy is the study of rock layers (strata) deposited in the earth [1]. It is one of the most challenging of geologic subdisciplines, comparable to an exacting form of detective work, yet it is also one of the most important branches of study in the geologic sciences.

The four main types of fossils are trace fossils , petrified fossils, molds and casts and carbon film. Most fossils contain a small amount of carbon, but carbon film fossils are primarily composed of carbon. Formation Every living thing contains carbon. When an organism dies or a leaf falls, it sinks into the earth’s layers and decomposes. A carbon film is made when the oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen of the organism disappear, leaving a thin layer of carbon.

This process is known as distillation or carbonization. If the layer of carbon is on a viable surface, usually under a body of water, an imprint of the organism will remain. Look Carbon film fossils are usually black, dark brown or light brown in color, depending on the type of rock they are pressed upon. Unlike trace fossils, molds and casts, which form a three-dimensional shape of the object or organism, carbon film fossils are two-dimensional, like a drawing.

Absolute dating

In situ fossils are single organisms objects that appear to span one or more layers of geologic strata. Creationists claim that these types of formations disprove an old earth stating that geologists claim layers of strata take thousands and millions of years to form, so objects that span strata formations cannot have formed over such long periods. To the layman who knows noting about geology and geologic processes this sounds reasonable. It is true that most stratigraphic formations do form over thousands and millions of years, however, some form quite rapidly.

Most fossil are dated by decay of isotopes such as Uranium , Potassium 40, and Rubidium 87 that have much longer half-lives than carbon These isotopes aren’t found in the fossils themselves, but in the rock encasing the fossils.

Senior research scientist Alexander Cherkinsky specializes in the preparation of samples for Carbon testing. He directed the pretreatment and processing of the dinosaur bone samples with the Accelerator Mass Spectrometer, though he did not know the bones were from dinosaurs, and he signed the reports. Carbon dating at this facility is certainly the very best. But in , someone told the director of the facility, Jeff Speakman, that the Paleochronology group was showing the Carbon reports on a website and YouTube and drawing the obvious conclusions.

So when he received another bone sample from the Paleochronology group, he returned it to sender and sent an email saying: The scientists at CAIS and I are dismayed by the claims that you and your team have made with respect to the age of the Earth and the validity of biological evolution. Consequently, we are no longer able to provide radiocarbon services in support of your anti-scientific agenda. I have instructed the Radiocarbon Laboratory to return your recent samples to you and to not accept any future samples for analysis.

No, his objection was that the Paleochronology group was using the reports as evidence that dinosaurs lived thousands, not millions, of years ago. So I asked him 3 times over 3 weeks what is the right conclusion to draw from the test results they provided us; then I asked his entire scientific staff. None of them had an answer. This is an attitude we have encountered among members of academia: Anyone who challenges the established truth is made an enemy.

Homo habilis

Paleontology is the study of fossils. A fossil is defined as any trace of a past life form. Thus, although wood, bones, and shells are the most common fossils, under certain conditions soft tissues, tracks and trails, and even coprolites fossil feces may be preserved as fossils. Although most of the fossils that paleontologists study are several thousands to several billions of years old, there is no absolute minimum age for a biological structure to be a fossil.

One of the most accurate chronometric dating techniques is dendrochronology, or tree-ring dating. It is based on the fact that annual growth rings under the bark on shallow rooted trees vary in width with the amount of water available each season and with temperature fluctuations from winter to summer.

These formations may have resulted from carcass burial in an anoxic environment with minimal bacteria, thus slowing decomposition. Stromatolites Lower Proterozoic Stromatolites from Bolivia , South America Stromatolites are layered accretionary structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains by biofilms of microorganisms , especially cyanobacteria. While older, Archean fossil remains are presumed to be colonies of cyanobacteria , younger that is, Proterozoic fossils may be primordial forms of the eukaryote chlorophytes that is, green algae.

One genus of stromatolite very common in the geologic record is Collenia. The earliest stromatolite of confirmed microbial origin dates to 2. The most widely supported explanation is that stromatolite builders fell victims to grazing creatures the Cambrian substrate revolution , implying that sufficiently complex organisms were common over 1 billion years ago.

Factors such as the chemistry of the environment may have been responsible for changes. Cyanobacteria as well as extremophile Gammaproteobacteria are thought to be largely responsible for increasing the amount of oxygen in the primeval earth’s atmosphere through their continuing photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria use water , carbon dioxide and sunlight to create their food.


Fossilization is an exceptionally rare occurrence. After death, organisms tend to decompose quickly. What scavengers like vultures and hyenas leave behind, flies, ants, worms, and bacteria quickly consume. Scientist Olivia Judson provides this good example of what happens to an adult male gorilla in the tropical rainforests of the Congo; “An adult male gorilla— all pounds of him—will be reduced to a pile of bones and hair within 10 days of his death. Within three weeks, there will be nothing left but a few small bones.

When they form, minerals often contain only a parent isotope and none of the daughter isotopes. It makes the percentages easier to interpret and makes dating more accurate. Can Radiometric dating techniques be used to date sedimentary rock?

Are you sure you want to delete this answer? Yes Sorry, something has gone wrong. Carbon 14 has a relatively short half-life, which makes it useful only to date once-living organisms that are known or suspected to be less than about thousand years old. But there are many other isotopes that can be used to date rocks and the fossils found within them, and the process works the same way. Also, the correct isoptope must be used to test the age of the object.

Some isotopes have a very, very long half-life, and those isotopes can only be used to test objects that are, of course, very old. Use that same isotope to date a rock that just left the mouth of a volcano two weeks ago, and you will get a false reading. Isotopic dating methods rely on the constant rate of decay from radioactive isotopes into daughter elements. When scientists test a rock, they draw a conclusion of it’s age. This conclusion is based upon carefully designed and conducted experiments that compare the ratios in rock samples of parent elements to daughter elements some of which would have been from radioactive decay of the parent, some of which may have been present in the sample at the time of formation.

Since radioactive decay is known to occur at a constant rate, the age of a rock can be determined from the ratio of the parent element to the daughter element. For this reason, the tests were designed to account for those possibilities. Initial daughter element can often be accounted for by either measuring the amount of an isotope of the daughter element the ratio of isotopes are almost always constant. Another possibility is as in the case of the potassium – argon – K-Ar method that because the daughter element is gaseous, it would escape from the rock when the rock was molten.

What is the MOST accurate method of dating fossils is?

Potential of abundant, environmentally harmless energy technology , which already exists My strategy for manifesting that energy event for humanity’s and the planet’s benefit. I w as born in In that same year, I had my cultural and mystical awakenings. During my second year of college, I had my first existential crisis and a paranormal event changed my studies from science to business. I s till held my energy dreams, however, and in , eight years after that first paranormal event, I had a second one that suddenly caused me to move up the coast from Los Angeles to Seattle, where I landed in the middle of what is arguably the greatest attempt yet made to bring alternative energy to the American marketplace.

May 04,  · Fossils and rocks are dated by chemical means that rely on carbon dating which has a variance due to climate changes. Radiocarbon is continuously produced in Author: Just Genesis.

What is the Most Accurate Form Of Dating Fossils The circumstances of the object may allow one to say that one object is older than another without being able to assign a particular age to the objects.. How is radiometric dating used to tell the age of a fossil? The method compares the abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope within the material to the abundance of its decay products, which form at a known constant rate of decay.

Single tooth found, and the largest sagittal crest in any known hominid, are more.. Floresiensis was fully bipedal, used stone tools and fire, and hunted dwarf elephants also found on the island. Various radioisotope dating methods note: After an organism has been dead for 60, years, so little carbon14 is left that accurate dating can not be established. The characteristic structures, functions, and behaviors of organisms change in predictable ways as they progress from birth to old age.

But the most famous absolute dating method is radiocarbon This process frees energy in the form of. Offspring acquire a mix of traits from their biological parents. Thought to be from the same species, this is not confirmed. A fossil is defined as any trace of a past life form.

Answers to Creationist Attacks on Carbon-14 Dating

In , in an area called Chalkidiki in Petralona, Northern Greece, a shepherd came across a small opening to a cave, which became visible when a thick covering of snow finally melted. He gathered a group of villagers to help him clear the entrance so they could go inside and explore. They found a cave rich in stalactites and stalagmites. But they also found something surprising — a human skull embedded in the wall later research also uncovered a huge number of fossils including pre-human species, animal hair, fossilized wood, and stone and bone tools.

Figure 2. How relative dating of events and radiometric (numeric) dates are combined to produce a calibrated geological time scale. In this example, the data demonstrates that “fossil B time” was somewhere between and million years ago, and that “fossil A .

How accurate are carbon-dating methods? All methods of radioactive dating rely on three assumptions that may not necessarily be true: Rate of Decay It is assumed that the rate of decay has remained constant over time. This assumption is backed by numerous scientific studies and is relatively sound. However, conditions may have been different in the past and could have influenced the rate of decay or formation of radioactive elements.

Evolutionists assume that the rate of cosmic bombardment of the atmosphere has always remained constant and that the rate of decay has remained constant. Thus radioactive dating relies purely on assumptions. We could put forward the following counter arguments to the constancy of these assumptions: The current high rate of entry might be a consequence of a disturbed post-Flood environment that altered the carbon to carbon ratio. Pre-Flood dates would thus have to be discarded.

Some scientists argue that the magnetic field of the earth has declined over time. Carbon comes from nitrogen and is independent of the carbon reservoir. If even a small percentage of the limestone deposits were still in the form of living marine organisms at the time of the Flood, then the small amount of carbon would have mixed with a much larger carbon reservoir, thus resulting in a drastically reduced ratio.

The human skull that challenges the Out of Africa theory

See this page in: Hungarian , Russian , Spanish People who ask about carbon 14C dating usually want to know about the radiometric [1] dating methods that are claimed to give millions and billions of years—carbon dating can only give thousands of years. People wonder how millions of years could be squeezed into the biblical account of history. Clearly, such huge time periods cannot be fitted into the Bible without compromising what the Bible says about the goodness of God and the origin of sin, death and suffering —the reason Jesus came into the world See Six Days?

Christians , by definition, take the statements of Jesus Christ seriously. This only makes sense with a time-line beginning with the creation week thousands of years ago.

Mar 25,  · Let’s talk fossils!! Let’s begin by discussing how fossils are formed because many people don’t really know what it takes for fossils to form. To begin with several processes have to take place in order for fossil formation to occur and no matter which of these processes causes the fossil to form it requires a.

The links I posted showed which sedimentary rock formations the fossils came from. You should be able to pinpoint the uranium mines in them if there were such. I don’t recall seeing it the video gives only approximate locations? It’s really a moot point anyway as the research I posted shows that it’s quite difficult to find hydrocarbon deposits that are extremely low in C14 as naturally occurring radiation due to uranium and thorium deposits are ubiquitous.

Hydrocarbons are not necessarily “fossil fuel”. Natural reactions between the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen within the earth can form them. These would be extremely low in C I, literally, just demonstrated that this is factually incorrect. The research being done on C14 in hydrocarbons is being done exactly because it is so difficult to find such deposits that have low enough amounts of C14 such that they are suitable for use in neutrino detectors.

Naturally occurring uranium and thorium is more than sufficient to induce significant amounts of C14 as to render them useless for this research and to show C14 dates way younger than the deposits are known to be.

How Carbon Dating Works